National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Office of Applied Studies
1a Admissions by primary
substance of abuse: TEDS 1992-2002.
1b Admissions by primary
substance of abuse: TEDS 1992-2002.
2a Admissions by primary
substance of abuse, according to sex, race/ethnicity,
and age: TEDS 2002.
Percent distribution and average age at admission
2b Admissions by sex,
race/ethnicity, and age, according to primary substance
of abuse: TEDS 2002.
3 Admissions by primary
substance of abuse, according to frequency of use,
route of administration, age at first use, and prior treatment: TEDS 2002.
4 Admissions by primary
substance of abuse, according to type of service,
source of referral to treatment, and planned use of methadone: TEDS 2002.
5 Admissions by primary
substance of abuse, according to employment
status (aged 16 and over) and education (aged 18 and over): TEDS 2002.
6a Admissions by State or
jurisdiction, according to primary substance of abuse:
6b Admissions by State or
jurisdiction, according to primary substance of abuse:
Appendix A. TEDS Minimum Dataset
This publication was developed for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Office of Applied Studies (OAS), by Leigh Henderson of Synectics for Management Decisions, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, under Contract No. 283-02-9026. The report was reviewed by OAS staff Deborah Trunzo, Anita Gadzuk, and Cathie Alderks. Deborah Trunzo also served as the SAMHSA Project Officer.
All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). However, this publication may not be reproduced or distributed for a fee without the specific, written authorization of the Office of Communications, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Suggested citation:
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). Highlights - 2002. National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services, DASIS Series: S-22, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 04-3946, Rockville, MD, 2004.
Copies may be obtained, free of charge, from the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Write or call NCADI at:
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)
P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345
This publication can be accessed electronically at:
SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 16-105
Rockville, Maryland 20857
This report presents summary results from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2002. The report provides information on the demographic and substance abuse characteristics of the 1.9 million annual admissions to treatment for abuse of alcohol and drugs in facilities that report to individual State administrative data systems.
This Summary Report is issued in advance of the full TEDS Report for 1992-2002. It includes demographic data and all items from the TEDS Minimum Data Set. The Annual Report also will include data from the Supplemental Data Set, State data, and State rates.
TEDS is an admission-based system, and TEDS admissions do not represent individuals. Thus, for example, an individual admitted to treatment twice within a calendar year would be counted as two admissions.
TEDS does not include all admissions to substance abuse treatment. It includes admissions to facilities that are licensed or certified by the State substance abuse agency to provide substance abuse treatment (or are administratively tracked for other reasons). In general, facilities reporting TEDS data are those that receive State alcohol and/or drug agency funds (including Federal Block Grant funds) for the provision of alcohol and/or drug treatment services.
Among all racial/ethnic groups except Puerto Ricans, primary alcohol use (alone or in combination with other drugs) was the most frequently reported substance at treatment admission. However, the proportion reporting use of the other four most common substances varied considerably by racial/ethnic group.
Among Whites, alcohol (48 percent) was followed by
marijuana (14 percent), heroin (12 percent), methamphetamine/amphetamine (8
percent), and smoked cocaine (5 percent) [Table 2b].
Among Blacks, alcohol (34 percent) was followed by smoked
cocaine (23 percent), marijuana (18 percent), heroin (15 percent), and
methamphetamine/amphetamine (less than 1 percent) [Table 2b].
Among persons of Mexican origin, alcohol (41 percent) was
followed by heroin (19 percent), marijuana (16 percent),
methamphetamine/amphetamine (15 percent), and smoked cocaine (4 percent)
Among persons of Puerto Rican origin, heroin (49 percent)
was the most frequently reported substance at admission. This was followed by
alcohol (28 percent), marijuana (10 percent), smoked and non-smoked cocaine (5
percent each), and methamphetamine/amphetamine (less than 1 percent) [Table
Among persons of Cuban origin, alcohol (40 percent) was
followed by marijuana (17 percent), heroin (14 percent), smoked cocaine (12
percent), non-smoked cocaine (10 percent), and methamphetamine/amphetamine (2
percent) [Table 2b].
Among Alaska Natives, alcohol (63 percent) was followed by
heroin (18 percent), marijuana (8 percent), and methamphetamine/amphetamine
and smoked cocaine (3 percent each) [Table 2b].
Among American Indians, alcohol (63 percent) was followed
by marijuana (14 percent), methamphetamine/amphetamine (9 percent), heroin (5
percent), and smoked cocaine (3 percent) [Table 2b].
Missing values are coded as:
Unknown—The State collects this data item, but the record does not reflect an acceptable value.
Not collected—The State does not collect this data item for submission to TEDS.
Invalid—The value submitted for this data item was an invalid entry.
Client or codependent/collateral
A "client" is a person who meets all of the following criteria:
1) Has an alcohol or drug related problem
2) Has completed the screening and intake process
3) Has been formally admitted for treatment or recovery service in an alcohol or drug treatment unit
4) Has his or her own client record
A person is not a client if he or she has completed only a screening or intake process or has been placed on a waiting list.
A "codependent/collateral" is a person who has no alcohol or drug abuse problem, but satisfies all of the following conditions:
1) Is seeking services because of problems arising from his or her relationship with an alcohol or drug user
2) Has been formally admitted for service to a treatment unit
3) Has his or her own client record or has a record within a primary client record
GUIDELINES: Reporting of codependent/collateral data in TEDS is optional. If a substance abuse client with an existing record in TEDS becomes a codependent, a new client record should be submitted indicating that the client is an "admission" as a codependent. The reverse is also true for a person who is a codependent first and then becomes a substance abuse client.
Identifies whether a record is for an admission or a transfer/change in service.
T— Transfer/change in service
GUIDELINES: For purposes of reporting to TEDS, a treatment episode is defined as that period of service between the beginning of treatment for a drug or alcohol problem and the termination of services for the prescribed treatment plan. The episode includes one admission (when services begin), and one discharge (when services end). Within a treatment episode, a client may transfer to a different service, facility, program, or location. In some data systems, such transfers may generate "admissions" records. When it is feasible for the State to identify transfers, they should not be reported as admissions, but as transfers. When admissions and transfers cannot be differentiated in a State data system, such changes in service should be reported to TEDS as admissions.
Date of admission
The day when the client receives his or her first direct treatment or recovery service.
Type of service at admission
Describes the type of service the client receives.
Detoxification—24-hour service, hospital inpatient—24-hour per day medical acute care services in hospital setting for detoxification for persons with severe medical complications associated with withdrawal
Detoxification—24-hour service, free-standing residential—24-hour per day services in non-hospital setting providing for safe withdrawal and transition to ongoing treatment
Rehabilitation/residential—Hospital (other than detoxification)—24-hour per day medical care in a hospital facility in conjunction with treatment services for alcohol and other drug abuse and dependency
Rehabilitation/residential—Short-term (30 days or fewer)—Typically, 30 days or less of non-acute care in a setting with treatment services for alcohol and other drug abuse and dependency
Rehabilitation/residential—Long-term (more than 30 days)—Typically, more than 30 days of non-acute care in a setting with treatment services for alcohol and other drug abuse and dependency; this may include transitional living arrangements such as halfway houses
Ambulatory—Intensive outpatient—As a minimum, the client must receive treatment lasting two or more hours per day for three or more days per week
Ambulatory—Non-intensive outpatient—Ambulatory treatment services including individual, family, and/or group services; these may include pharmacological therapies
Ambulatory—Detoxification—Outpatient treatment services providing for safe withdrawal in an ambulatory setting (pharmacological or non-pharmacological)
Identifies client’s age at admission. Derived from client’s date of birth and date of admission.
0—Indicates a newborn with a substance dependency problem
1-96—Indicates the age at admission
Identifies client’s sex.
Specifies the client’s race.
Alaska Native (Aleut, Eskimo, Indian)—Origins in any of the original people of Alaska
American Indian (other than Alaska Native)—Origins in any of the original people of North America and South America (including Central America) and who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community attachment
Asian or Pacific Islander—Origins in any of the original people of the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, or the Pacific Islands
Black or African American—Origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa
White—Origins in any of the original people of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East
Other—A default category for use in instances in which the client is not classified above or whose origin group, because of area custom, is regarded as a racial class distinct from the above categories.
Identifies client’s specific Hispanic origin
Puerto Rican—Of Puerto Rican origin, regardless of race
Mexican—Of Mexican origin, regardless of race
Cuban—Of Cuban origin, regardless of race
Other Specific Hispanic—Of known Central or South American or any other Spanish cultural origin (including Spain), regardless of race, other than Puerto Rican, Mexican, or Cuban, regardless of race
Hispanic—specific origin not specified—Of Hispanic origin, but specific origin not known or not specified
Not of Hispanic origin
GUIDELINES: If a State does not collect specific Hispanic detail, code Ethnicity for Hispanics as Hispanic—specific origin not specified.
Number of prior treatment episodes
Indicates the number of previous treatment episodes the client has received in any drug or alcohol program. Changes in service for the same episode (transfers) should not be counted as separate prior episodes.
0 previous episodes
1 previous episode
2 previous episodes
3 previous episodes
4 previous episodes
5 or more previous episodes
GUIDELINES: It is preferred that the number of prior treatments be a self-reporting field collected at the time of client intake. However, this data item may be derived from the State data system, if the system has that capability, and episodes can be counted for at least several years.
Principal source of referral
Describes the person or agency referring the client to the alcohol or drug abuse treatment program.
Individual (includes self-referral)—Includes the client, a family member, friend, or any other individual who would not be included in any of the following categories; includes self-referral due to pending DWI/DUI
Alcohol/drug abuse care provider—Any program, clinic, or other health care provider whose principal objective is treating clients with substance abuse problems, or a program whose activities are related to alcohol or other drug abuse prevention, education, or treatment
Other health care provider—A physician, psychiatrist, or other licensed health care professional; or general hospital, psychiatric hospital, mental health program, or nursing home
School (educational)—A school principal, counselor, or teacher; or a student assistance program (SAP), the school system, or an educational agency
Employer/EAP—A supervisor or an employee counselor
Other community referral—Community or religious organization or any Federal, State, or local agency that provides aid in the areas of poverty relief, unemployment, shelter, or social welfare. Self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Al-Anon, and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are also included in this category. Defense attorneys are included in this category.
Court/criminal justice referral/DUI/DWI—Any police official, judge, prosecutor, probation officer, or other person affiliated with a Federal, State, or county judicial system. Includes referral by a court for DWI/DUI, clients referred in lieu of or for deferred prosecution, or during pretrial release, or before or after official adjudication. Includes clients on pre-parole, pre-release, work or home furlough, or TASC. Client need not be officially designated as "on parole." Includes clients referred through civil commitment. Client referrals in this category are further defined in the Supplemental Data Set item Detailed criminal justice referral.
Specifies the highest school grade the client has completed.
0—Less than one grade completed
1-25—Years of school (highest grade) completed
GUIDELINES: States that use specific categories for some code numbers should map their codes to a logical "number of years of school completed." For General Equivalency Degree, use 12. For Bachelor’s Degree, use 16.
Identifies the client’s employment status at the time of admission or transfer.
Full time—Working 35 hours or more each week; includes members of the uniformed services
Part time—Working fewer than 35 hours each week
Unemployed—Looking for work during the past 30 days, or on layoff from a job
Not in labor force—Not looking for work during the past 30 days or a student, homemaker, disabled, retired, or an inmate of an institution. Clients in this category are further defined in the Supplemental Data Set item Detailed Not in Labor Force.
GUIDELINES: Seasonal workers are coded in this category based on their employment status at time of admission.
Substance problem (primary, secondary, and tertiary)
These fields identify the client’s primary, secondary, and tertiary substance problems.
Marijuana/hashish—This includes THC and other cannabis sativa preparations
Other opiates and synthetics—Includes codeine, Dilaudid, morphine, Demerol, opium, oxycodone, and any other drug with morphine-like effects
Other hallucinogens—Includes hallucinogens, LSD, DMT, STP, mescaline, psilocybin, peyote, etc.
Other amphetamines—Includes amphetamines, Benzedrine, Dexedrine, Preludin, Ritalin, and any other amines and related drugs
Other stimulants—Includes all other stimulants
Benzodiazepine—Includes diazepam, flurazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, lorazepam, alprazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, prazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, halazepam, and other unspecified benzodiazepines
Other tranquilizers—Includes non-benzodiazepine tranquilizers
Barbiturates—Includes phenobarbital, Seconal, Nembutal, etc.
Other sedatives or hypnotics—Includes non-barbiturate sedatives/hypnotics, chloral hydrate, Placidyl, Doriden, etc.
Inhalants—Includes ether, glue, chloroform, nitrous oxide, gasoline, paint thinner, etc.
Over-the-counter medications—Includes aspirin, cough syrup, Sominex, and any other legally obtained nonprescription medication
Usual route of administration (of primary, secondary, and tertiary substances)
These fields identify the usual route of administration of the respective substances.
Injection (IV or intramuscular)
Frequency of use (of primary, secondary, and tertiary substances)
These fields identify the frequency of use of the respective substances.
No use in the past month
1-3 times in the past month
1-2 times in the past week
3-6 times in the past week
Age of first use (of primary, secondary, and tertiary substances)
For drugs other than alcohol, these fields identify the age at which the client first used the respective substance. For alcohol, these fields record the age of first intoxication.
0—Indicates a newborn with a substance dependency problem
1-96—Indicates the age at first use
Planned use of methadone
Identifies whether the use of methadone is planned as part of the treatment.